Underculture & History From Below

A History Of Class Struggle And The Factors That Created The Foundations For Capitalism. 


A rough chronology of revolt in concertina form, providing a lens to the underdocumented aspects of lower class resistance, on both land and at sea, from the Peasants' Revolt of 1381 onwards. Focus will also be applied to the three main factors that created capitalism: the gradual enclosure of common lands; the European witch hunts; and the Atlantic slave trade.

Below shows sections of the concertina as it progresses.

Concertina detail. 1637.

Jenny Geddes, a Scottish market-trader in Edinburgh, was alleged to have thrown a stool at the head of the minister in St Giles' Cathedral in objection to the first public use of the Scottish Episcopal Book of Common Prayer in Scotland. This incident is believed to have triggered the riot that led to the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, which included the English Civil War.

Concertina detail. 1839-43.

The Rebecca Riots were a series of protests undertaken by local farmers and agricultural workers in response to unfair taxes. The rioters, mostly men, tended to dress in women's clothing as a form of disguise, and primarily took their actions against toll-gates, as they were considered tangible representations of high taxes and tolls.

It is suggested that the name Rebecca was chosen from a verse in the Bible, Genesis 24:60 - 'And they blessed Rebekah and said unto her, Thou art our sister, be thou the mother of thousands of millions, and let thy seed possess the gate of those which hate them'. This verse was shouted many a time from the religious urban dwellers.